Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. 

The International Dyslexia Association


Dyslexia Common Risk Factors

Preschool-Third Grade:

  • Failure to understand that words are made up of parts or individual sounds
  • Difficulty learning the letter names and their corresponding sound
  • Difficulty reading single words in isolation
  • Choppy and labored reading
  • Difficulty spelling phonetically

Fourth Grade-High School:

  • History of reading and spelling difficulties
  • Difficulty reading aloud
  • Avoids reading for pleasure
  • Difficulty learning a foreign language

Post Secondary:

  • Difficulty with spoken vocabulary
  • Difficulty completing the reading demands for multiple course requirements